Physical Features Of Pakistan | Mountains, Rivers, Deserts


In this article, you will read about the Physical Features Of Pakistan. Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world that has all regions. It also has mountains, deserts, glaciers, and plains. Pakistan is located between four countries and borders China, India, Afghanistan, and Iran. Tajikistan is not our direct neighbor but the border between Pakistan and Tajikistan is not much and they are very close to each other.

The longest border of any country with Pakistan is Afghanistan which is 2250 km and the other is India which is 1600 km. The total area of ​​Pakistan i.e. 796,096KM and also longitude and latitude. The highest point of Pakistan is K-2 Mountain which is 8611 meters above sea level and the deepest point of Pakistan is 6500 meters.

Physical Features Of Pakistan

Physically, Pakistan is divided into 4 provinces, they are Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This post is about the Physical Features Of Pakistan, 

1. Western Highlands

The mountainous regions, in Pakistan which are on the western side of the country are generally dry and hot throughout the year, they are not very green or snowy but they grow bushes and grass during the rainy season. People living in these areas usually take their live animals for grazing.

This area is located in the western region of Pakistan. These mountains and hills are not very green, they are mostly dry hills. Only bushes grow there. People graze sheep there.

2. Northern Mountain Areas

The Northern Mountain Areas of Pakistan are one of the most beautiful places in Pakistan. These places are also among the remotest places, due to extreme weather conditions and dangerous routes to reach. These places have been out of reach of tourists for many years but now recently they are one of the most visited places in Pakistan by tourists. Among these places is K-2, the second highest place on earth after Mount Everest. The Karakoram Highway connects Pakistan to China and is also in the northern regions of Pakistan.

This area is located in the northern region of Pakistan. It has beautiful and very high mountains which is the second highest peak in the world. K2, is located in this region. The Karakoram Highway is located in the rugged mountainous region that connects China to Pakistan. You are reading the Physical Features Of Pakistan.

3. Balochistan Plateau

Balochistan Plateau is the driest region of Pakistan, people living in this region face very dry weather and due to the low availability of water, they have to carry water to their homes and save it. So one has to travel miles. There is not much grass growing in this place but only bushes with very smelly leaves.

the Arabian Sea in the south of Pakistan. A long sea coast in Sindh and Balochistan. Karachi is our largest city and port located on the coast of the Arabian Sea. A large number of fish are caught on the coast of Sindh and Baluchistan.

4. The Salt Range and Pothohar Plateau:

The area of ​​Pakistan which is covered with salt mines is the Salt Range Area and Pothohar Plateau of Pakistan. The land is not wide, and the area is close to Rawalpindi. This area has the largest salt mines in Pakistan. Khewra mines and some other mines are famous mines around the world and are one of the most visited places in Pakistan.

It lies between Rawalpindi and Jhelum. This area is not very high like the mountains. It has the largest salt mines in the world. Khewra is one of the famous towns for salt mines. You are reading top the Physical Features Of Pakistan. 

5. Lower Indus Plain

Located in the southern part of the Indus Plain, the Indus River flows alone. The Indus River flows south of Thatta into the Arabian Sea across the river delta.

Most of its area is in Sindh. It is also very fertile. A number of agricultural crops grow in it. Himalayas The western parts of the Himalayas fall into Pakistan. The Sub-Himalayas – the southernmost range – do not rise to great heights (600 – 1200 meters above sea level). The Greater Himalayas are located north of the Lesser Himalayas. They reach glacial altitude (above 4,600 m)

6. Upper Indus Plain

Most of the agricultural land in Pakistan is here, it is the upper Indus Plain, the land is very fertile and there is a lot of agriculture. Most of the area is green, so it’s a great place to live. This area is mostly in Punjab, the upper plain of Sindh ranges in altitude from 180 meters to 300 meters. There are 5 rivers in this plain.

This is the central region of Pakistan. It is very fertile. Many agricultural crops are grown there. It has several canals that supply water to agricultural lands. This plane is lush and green.

7. Coastal Area of ​​Sindh and Balochistan

Well, Pakistan has a coastal area of ​​1100 km around Sindh and Balochistan. The longest coastline is 771 km in Balochistan. The coastal area of ​​Pakistan is in Sindh and Balochistan, these coastal areas are along the Arabian Sea and connect Pakistan with other countries of the world.

Another plateau is located in Balochistan. It is also a dry plateau like Pothohar. Nothing grows there except bushes. Pakistan is one of the countries that has four seasons. The mountainous regions of Pakistan are actually one of the most beautiful regions in the entire world. This page is about best the Physical Features Of Pakistan. 

There were hot water reservoirs in Pakistan. Pakistan used to have glaciers, which are a major source of fresh water and just the rise in temperature every year could cause a lot of trouble for Pakistan.

How unique is Pakistan geographically?

Pakistan has the Hindu Kush, a mountain range including K2. Its northern valleys are Chitral, Swat, Gilgit, and Kashmir (disputed), each beautiful and unique.

To the west are the arid provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (NWFP) and Baluchistan, which may conjure images of the “Old West” to an American. In the east are the provinces of Punjab and Sindh, which have fertile plains around the Indus River.

Pakistan is home to the largest species of flying squirrel, the Woolly Flying Squirrel, which is large enough to be mistaken for a small monkey. It is an amazing part of the world, inhabited by a variety of unique people groups. The physical features of Pakistan are very different in different regions.

There are high mountains that are covered with snow throughout the year. Some areas of Punjab and Sindh are deserts, some areas are very hot and some areas are very cold.

Six major physical


In the extreme north, the Karakoram ranges rise to an average elevation of 6,100 meters. Mount Goodwin Austin (K-2) is the second highest peak in the world at 8,610 meters and is located in the Karakoram.


2) Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush mountains rise from the western side of the Pamir Plateau, which lies west of the Karakoram. These mountains turn towards the south and rise to the snowy heights. Some peaks rise to great heights such as Nowshq (7,369 m), and Tirch Mir (7,690 m).


The Koh-e-Safid ranges have an east-west trend and rise to an average elevation of 3,600 meters. They are usually covered with snow. Sacrum, the highest peak of the Koh White ranges rises to 4,760 meters. Similarly, the hills of Waziristan range in height between 1,500 and 3,000 meters.


Some of the rivers that flow in this region have passed through which armies, people and cultures have passed. Khyber Pass is the most important among them. It connects Peshawar in Pakistan with Kabul in Afghanistan.


The Sulaiman-Kirthar mountain range extending south of the Gomal River lies between the Balochistan plateau and the Sindh plains. Reaching the Murre Bugti Hills, they turn northwards and extend to Quetta. Further south, they meet the Kirthar Mountains, which merge into the Kohistan region of Sindh. Mount Sulaiman rises to an average height of 600 meters, decreasing towards the south. Takht Sulaiman (3,487 m) and Takatu (3,470 m) are the highest peaks of the Sulaiman Range.


3) Balochistan Plateau

The Balochistan Plateau is situated to the west of the Sulaiman Karthar Mountains. Its western part is dominated by several sub-parallel ranges: the Makran Coast Range (600 m) and the Central Makran Range (900 – 1200 m). The highest peak is Ras Koh, with a height of 3010 m.


4) Pothwar

Plateau and Salt Range The Pothwar Plateau and Salt Range region is located in the south of the mountainous north and lies between the Indus River and the Jhelum River in the west. On the east it is bordered by the Kala Chitta Hills and Margalla Hills on the north and the Salt Ranges on the south. The Kala Chitta Range rises to an average height of 450 – 900 meters and extends for about 72 km. The main plateau of Pothwar extends north of the Salt Range. It is an undisturbed area 300 – 600 meters high. The face of the Salt Ranges is steep to the south and slopes gently to the Pothwar Plateau in the north. They extend from the Jhelum River to Kalabagh from where they cross the Indus River to enter Bannu District and rise to an average elevation of 750-900 meters. Sakesar Peak (1,527 m) is the highest point of the Salt Ranges.


5) Indus Plan

The plains of the Indus are made up of alluvium from the Indus River and its tributaries. The Indus River is a mighty river about 2,900 km long with a catchment area of ​​about 963,500 sq km. From its source, it flows from east to west between the Karakoram and the Himalayas. It receives several tributaries from the west: the Kabul River, Karam, Tochi, and Gomal Rivers. The left tributaries are Jhelum, Ravi, and Sutlej. They gather in fives. In summer, the swelling of the Indus and its tributaries causes floods. Sometimes rivers change their course and spread fertile silt in some areas and coarse sand in others. All these processes have built up the plains of the Indus and made them very important agriculturally. The plains of Sindh are sloping from north to south. In the north, they rise to about 300 m and fall to about 75 m near Panjnad in Punjab. From there, they slope gently and drain into the Arabian Sea.

The plains can be divided into the following physiographic entities:




Active flood


and dunes

formed by alluvial fans along the Indus flowing eastward under the Indus Mountains between the Indus and Solomon Kirthar Mountains. . Most of the rivers that roll down the mountains become active only when it rains. They flow rapidly down the slopes. On reaching the foothills, they slow down and dump part of their load into the rivers, which divide into several narrow channels. These channels (with sediment load) become so overburdened that they die before reaching the Indus towards which they flow. The gravel, sand, and silt that accumulates in this way form combustion fans. The plains of the Piedmont, dominated by burnt fens, provide good soil and topography suitable for agriculture.


Alluvial terraces accumulate and are separated from adjacent floodplains by river-cut bluffs 5 to 15 m in height. The terrace sediments are called old alluvium and consist of compact calcareous silty clays.


Active floodplains are narrow strips of land along the Indus and its tributaries, with widths ranging from 24 to 40 km. They are inundated almost every year, covered with a lot of alluvium and suitable for agriculture. Old floodplains cover large areas between active floodplains and desert areas in the lower Indus Valley.


The deltaic plains are actually formed by the Indus as a large delta at its mouth. The peak of the delta is south of Thatta. The area bounded by Kalri and Pinyari, two distributaries of the Sindh, is taken as the Indus Delta. The delta is scarred by the old and present channels of the Indus. On the coast, barrier bars have developed. There are extensive mud flats cut by sea channels. The inner boundary of the mud flats is marked by a cliff.


6) The Thar Desert

is a vast area in the southwest of Pakistan covered with rolling sand plains and dunes. It is separated from the Indus Valley by the dry channels of the Ghaggar River. This vast desert is called Cholistan in Punjab and Thar in Sindh. It does not originate from any perennial stream. Hence wind action is dominant in shaping its topography. A vast area of ​​sand plains with dunes dominates the landscape. It is an agriculturally poor area.

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